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JCM 2023 Vol.18(11): 722-738
Doi: 10.12720/jcm.18.11.722-738

V2X-Equipped Smart Intersections − Survey of Surveys, Use Cases, and Deployments

Hamdan Hejazi* and László Bokor
Department of Networked Systems and Services, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary; Email: bokorl@hit.bme.hu (L.B.) *Correspondence: hhejazi@hit.bme.hu (H.H.)

Manuscript received November 15, 2022; revised January 5 2023, accepted February 2, 2023.

Abstract—The interaction between Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) and smart intersection participants, such as vehicles and drivers in Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS), is one of the main tools in solutions for increasing road safety and minimizing the number of possible road accidents. Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication of advanced C-ITS architectures includes Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (V2P) context for extensive information exchange between road users. V2P employs various direct, indirect, and hybrid communication technologies and uses different techniques to interact with multiple traffic participants, infrastructure, traffic light controllers, and especially VRUs, during unpredictable situations. To address emerging technologies and applications of collaborative smart intersections and explore novel C-ITS solutions designed for this domain, the paper analyses available surveys and introduces the relevant communication schemes, use cases, and recent deployment efforts.

Keywords—V2X, V2P, C-ITS, smart intersection, VRU protection

Cite: Hamdan Hejazi* and László Bokor, “V2X-Equipped Smart Intersections − Survey of Surveys, Use Cases, and Deployments" Journal of Communications vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 722-738, November 2023.

Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.