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Uneven Clustering Routing Algorithm Based on Optimal Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks

Jianpo Li and Junyuan Huo
School of Information Engineering, Northeast Dianli University, Jilin, 132012, China

Abstract—Hierarchical routing algorithm as an energy optimization strategy has been widely considered as one of the effective ways to save energy for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose an uneven clustering routing algorithm based on optimal clustering. The algorithm considers the calculation of optimal cluster number, cluster head selection, cluster radius calculation, and isolated node management. Firstly, a new method to calculate the optimal cluster number is presented by considering data fusion rate and location adaptability. Secondly, we propose a cluster head selection algorithm by considering residual energy, initial energy, average energy consumption, and node degree. Thirdly, in order to solve “hot spot” problem, a self-adaptive uneven clustering algorithm is proposed, which takes node degree into consideration. Besides, we propose a solution to solve “isolated nodes problem”. The isolated nodes join the nearest clusters according to the cost for joining near cluster and sending data to the base station through the nearest cluster head. The simulation results show the superiority in terms of network lifetime, the number of alive nodes, and the total energy consumption.

Index Terms—Wireless sensor networks, energy optimization strategy, optimal cluster number, cluster head selection, uneven clustering algorithms, isolated nodes

Cite: Jianpo Li and Junyuan Huo, “Uneven Clustering Routing Algorithm Based on Optimal Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks," Journal of Communications, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 132-142, 2016. Doi: 10.12720/jcm.11.2.132-142