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Design of Orthogonal Uplink Pilot Sequences for TDD Massive MIMO under Pilot Contamination

Sajjad Ali, Zhe Chen, and Fuliang Yin
School of Information and Communication Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
Abstract—Massive MIMO has been acknowledged as a promising technology to counter the demand for higher data capacity for wireless networks in 2020 and beyond. However, each Base Station (BS) requires good enough knowledge of Channel State Information (CSI) on both the uplink and the downlink as massive MIMO relies on spatial multiplexing. In Time Division Duplex (TDD) massive MIMO systems, this CSI is acquired using channel reciprocity. However, the use of non-orthogonal uplink pilot sequence due to limited coherence time leads to pilot contamination in TDD massive MIMO systems that results in inter-cell interference in the downlink data transmission. This paper proposes a design of orthogonal uplink pilot sequences for multi-cell TDD massive MIMO systems. We propose to use Zadoff-Chu Pilot Sequences (ZCPS) and eliminate pilot contamination during channel estimation process. In the proposed design, each BS is assigned with a specific orthogonal code and the set of ZCPS is multiplied element-wise at each BS with BS-specific orthogonal code to generate orthogonality among pilot sequences across neighboring cells. The proposed design eliminates pilot contamination during channel estimation process thus achieves significant sum-rate gains as verified by the simulation results.
 
Index Terms—Massive MIMO, channel state information, pilot contamination, Zadoff-Chu, orthogonal codes

Cite: Sajjad Ali, Zhe Chen, and Fuliang Yin, "Design of Orthogonal Uplink Pilot Sequences for TDD Massive MIMO under Pilot Contamination," Journal of Communications, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 40-48, 2017. Doi: 10.12720/jcm.12.1.40-48
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