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Improving Energy Detection in Cognitive Radio Systems Using Machine Learning

Temitope O. Fajemilehin 1, Abid Yahya 2, and Kibet Langat 3
1. Pan African University Institute for Basic Sciences, Technology and Innovation, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
2. Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Private Bag 16, Palapye, Botswana
3. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi, Kenya

Abstract—Research has shown that a huge portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is underutilized. Over the years, cognitive radio has been demonstrated as an efficient dynamic spectrum management technique. Energy detection is one of the widely used spectrum sensing techniques. However, its performance is limited by factors such as multipath fading and shadowing, which makes it prone to errors, particularly in low signal-to-noise ratio conditions. Yet, it still has a low computational cost, which reduces communication overhead. This paper aims to improve the detection accuracy of the energy detector through the use of machine learning (ML) techniques. In this research, ML models were trained using the energy characteristics of the primary user and other users present within the system. Weighted KNN produced the highest overall accuracy with an average of 91.88% accuracy at various SNR conditions. However, complex tree algorithm gave the most accurate detection (99% accuracy) of the primary user across all the channel conditions tested. This detection also helped to differentiate between the identity of the primary or secondary user from interference.
Index Terms—Cognitive radio, energy detection, detection accuracy, machine learning

Cite: Temitope O. Fajemilehin, Abid Yahya, and Kibet Langat, “Improving Energy Detection in Cognitive Radio Systems Using Machine Learning,”Journal of Communications vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 74-80, January 2020. Doi: 10.12720/jcm.15.1.74-80

Copyright © 2020 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.